Class XII

Physics tuition for CBSE, ICSE , WBCHSE  School Students at Barasat

• Offline and Online coaching for Class XII Students(CBSE, WBCHSE)
• Online learning portal access for preparation.
• Online Test in every week.
• Practice Question Paper and Study Material.
• Class Schedule : 2 classes / week.
• Coaching fees : 900 INR /month.

The Central Board of Secondary Education

PHYSICS SYLLABUS

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is a board of education for public and private schools, under the Union Government of India.

Marks

Unit–I Electrostatics 16
Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields
Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
Unit–II Current Electricity
Chapter–3: Current Electricity
Unit–III Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism 17
Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism
Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter
Unit–IV Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction
Chapter–7: Alternating Current
Unit–V Electromagnetic Waves 18
Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves
Unit–VI Optics
Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Chapter–10: Wave Optics
Unit–VII Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter 12
Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Unit–VIII Atoms and Nuclei
Chapter–12: Atoms
Chapter–13: Nuclei
Unit–IX Electronic Devices 7
Chapter–14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
Total 70

Practical

SECTION–A

Experiments

1. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph for potential difference versus current.
2. To find resistance of a given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the resistivity (specific resistance) of its material.
3. To verify the laws of combination (series) of resistances using a metre bridge.
4. To verify the laws of combination (parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge.
5. To compare the EMF of two given primary cells using potentiometer.
6. To determine the internal resistance of given primary cell using potentiometer.
7. To determine the resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit.
8. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into a voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.
9. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into an ammeter of desired range and to verify the same.
10. To find the frequency of AC mains with a sonometer.

SECTION–B

Experiments

1. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a concave mirror and to find the focal length.
2. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.
3. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between 1/u and1/v.
4. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.
5. To determine the angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation.
6. To determine the refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
7. To find the refractive index of a liquid by using a convex lens and plane mirror.
8. To draw the I-V characteristic curve for a p-n junction in forward bias and reverse bias.
9. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse break down voltage.
10. To study the characteristics of a common – emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the value of current and voltage gains.

West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education

PHYSICS SYLLABUS

West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education (WBCHSE) is a board of education for public and private schools, under the Union Government of India.

Marks

Unit–I Electrostatics 08
Unit–II Current Electricity 08
Unit–III Magnetic effect of current & Magnetism 08
Unit–IV Electromagnetic induction and alternating current 08
Unit–V Electromagnetic waves 03
Unit–VI Optics 14
Unit–VII Dual Nature of Matter 04
Unit–VIII Atoms and Nuclei 06
Unit–IX Electronic Devices 08
Unit–X Communication Systems 03
Total 70

Detailed syllabus

Unit – I: Electrostatics

Electric Charge; conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law- force between two-point charge, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous distribution.

Electric field, Electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Guass theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential -energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.

Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor. Van de Graaff generator.

Unit – II: Current Electricity

Electric current, flow of electric charge in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance.V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity.

Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.

Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Elementary idea of secondary cells.

Kirchoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

Unit – III: Magnetic effect of current & Magnetism

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.

Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids.

Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current – carrying in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current conductors – definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer- its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a resolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para –, dia and ferro – magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.

Unit- IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current

Electromagnetic Induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; lenz’s law, Eddy currents, Self and mutual inductance.

Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current.

AC generator and transformer.

Unit – V: Electromagnetic waves

Need for displacement current. Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Unit- VI: Optics

Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens- maker’s formula. Newton’s relation: Displacement method to find position of image (conjugate points) magnification power of a lens, combination of thin- lenses in contact, combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.

Scattering of light – blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Elementary idea of roman effect.

Optical instrument: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia and astigmatism) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Wave optics: wave front and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experience for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.

Unit- VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation

Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation – particle nature light.

Matter waves- wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davission – Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).

Unit- VIII: Atoms & Nuclei

Alpha – particle scattering experiment: Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Continuous and characteristic X – rays. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radio activity alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law.

Mass – energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission and fusion.

Unit- IX: Electronic Devices

Energy bands in solids, conductors, insulators and Semiconductors; semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode;

Zener diode as a voltage regular. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.

Unit- X: Communication Systems

Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation.

Production and detection of an amplitude – modulated wave.

Practical

Every student will perform at least 15 experiments (7 from Section A & 8 from Section B). The activities mentioned here should only be for the purpose of demonstration. One Project of three marks is to be carried out by the students.

Two experiments one from each sectionTwo experiments one from each section(1 out of 3 from Section A & 1 out of 3 from Section B) [8+8 Marks]

Practical record (experiments & activities) 6 MarksPractical record (experiments & activities) [6 Marks]

Project [3 Marks]

Viva on experiments & project [5 Marks]

SECTION A
Experiments

(Any 8 experiments out of the following to be performed by the students)

1. To measure diameter of a small spherical/cyclindrical body using Vernier callipers.
2. To measure internal diameter and depth of a given beaker/calorimeter using Vernier
Capllipers and hence find its volume.
3. To measure diameter of a given wire using screw guage.
4. To measure thickness of a given sheet using screw guage.
5. To measure volume of an irregular lamina using screw guage
6. To determine radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by a spherometer.
7. To find the weight of a given body using parallelogram law of vectors.
8. Using a simple pendulum plot L-T and L-T2 graphs. Hence find the effective length of
second’s pendulum using appropriate graph.
9. To study the relationship between force of limiting friction and normal reaction and to
find co-efficient of friction between a block and a horizontal surface.
10. To find the downward force, along an inclined plane, acting on a roller due to gravitational
pull of the earth and study its relationship with the angle of inclination by plotting graph
between force and sinø

Activities (for the purpose of demonstration only)

1. To make a paper scale of given least count, e.g 0.2cm, 0.5cm.
2. To determine mass of a given body using a metre scale by principle of moments.
3. To plot a graph for a given set of data, with proper choice of scales and error bars.
4. To measure the force of limiting friction for rolling of a roller on a horizontal plane.
5. To study the variation in range of a jet of water with angle of projection.
6. To study the conservation of energy of a ball rolling down on inclined plane (using a
double inclined plane)
7. To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum by plotting a graph between square
of amplitude and time.

SECTION B
Experiments

(Any 7 experiments out of the following to be performed by the students)

1. To determine Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire.
2. To find the force constant of a helical spring by plotting graph between load and extension.
3. To study the variation in volume with pressure for a sample of air at constant temperature
by plotting graphs between P and V, and between P and I/V.
4. To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method
5. To determine the coefficient of viscosity of a given viscous liquid by measuring terminal
velocity of a given spherical body.
6. To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time by plotting a
cooling curve.
7. To determine specific heat of a given (i) solid (ii) liquid by method of mixtures.
8. To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under constant
tension using sonometer.
9. To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension for constant frequency
using sonometer.
10. To find the speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube by two –
resonance positions.

Activities (for the purpose of demonstration only)

To observe change of state and plot a cooling curve for molten wax.
2. To observe and explain the effect of heating on a bi-metallic strip.
3. To note the change in level of liquid in a container on heating and interpret the observations.
4. To study the effect of detergent on surface tension by observing capillary rise.
5. To study factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid.
6. To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped meter scale loaded
i. At its end
ii. In the middle.